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# Chain surveying and it principal

Chain surveying is a traditional surveying method that involves measuring linear distances using a chain or tape. The chain or tape is used to measure distances between two points, which can then be used to determine the relative positions of objects on the ground.

The main principles of chain surveying are:

1. Measurement of Distances - The primary goal of chain surveying is to accurately measure the distances between two points. This is typically done using a chain or tape that is marked with intervals, such as feet or meters. The chain or tape is used to measure the distance between two points, and the length of the chain or tape is recorded to determine the distance between the two points.

2. Triangulation - Chain surveying is based on the principle of triangulation, which involves measuring the angles and distances between three or more points to determine the relative position of objects on the ground. In chain surveying, a series of interconnected triangles is used to determine the relative positions of objects on the ground.

3. Ranging - Ranging is the process of aligning the chain or tape between two points. This is done to ensure that the chain or tape is properly aligned between the two points being measured, and that the measurement is as accurate as possible.

4. Levelling - Levelling is the process of determining the elevation of a point relative to a reference level, such as sea level. In chain surveying, levelling is used to ensure that the chain or tape is level when it is being used to measure distances, and to correct for any differences in elevation between the points being measured.

By following these principles, chain surveying provides a reliable and accurate method for measuring distances and determining the relative positions of objects on the ground. However, it is a relatively slow and labor-intensive method compared to other modern surveying techniques, such as GPS and total station surveying.