Civilnotess provide lectures notes of civil engineering subjects like Structural analysis, Soil mechanics, Strength of material, Transportation, Reinforced cement concrete, Surveying and many more subjects. Also provide notes for GATE, SSC, JE, RRB, PSUs Exams and few courses for Autocad, Revit, Staddpro, Estimations and costing.
the first step to start a new civil engineering project, is a very important
branch of civil engineering. To understand the techniques of surveying a
student, you should carefully study the basic concepts of it. To begin to learn
the topography one must begin with the definition of topography and its
The survey is
the technique of determining the relative position of different characteristics
in, above or below the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect
measurements and, finally, representing them on a sheet of paper known as a map
the American Congress of Topography and Cartography (ACSM),
also includes the technique of establishing points by predetermined angular and
linear measurements. From the plans, sections and maps prepared by survey, the
area and volume of a particular plot of land can be calculated. A map
represents the horizontal projection of the area studied and not the actual area.
But the vertical distance can be represented more correctly by drawing
survey, surveyors use various tools to perform their work successfully and
accurately, such as total stations, GPS receivers, prisms, 3D scanners, radio
communicators, digital levels, level and dump measurement software, etc.
Written By : Parag Kamlakar Pal
BE (Civil Engineering), NICMAR (Advance construction management)