What is Building? Basic Components of a Building

Construction or housing are the most fundamental needs for humanity. It gives us shelter. When we see or hear the word “Building”, we imagine that a building is tall and has a roof, walls, rooms, etc. However, in a broader sense, the definition of a building is structurally constructive based on bricks, sands, types of cement, water, concrete, metal, etc.
What is construction?
The building is a type of structure that is constructed with materials and is included with foundations, baseboards, walls, floors, ceilings,
chimneys, plumbing and construction services, fixed platforms, veranda, balcony, cornice or projection, part of a building or anything adhered to or any wall that contains or intends to enclose any terrain or space and signs and outdoor exhibit structures. For example, houses, factories, shopping centers, hospitals, etc.
The goal of a building is to provide shelter together with security. Other purposes, such as buildings, serve several societal needs primarily as protection against climate, safety, living space, privacy, storage of belongings, electricity supply and the comfort of living and working.
Types of buildings
The buildings can be masonry buildings with load, RCC or buildings with steel structure. There are many different types of buildings. As-
1.       Residential houses,
2.       Schools, colleges and universities,
3.       Hospitals
4.       Factories, Workshops,
5.       Mosques, Churches, Temples,
6.       Shopping centers etc.
Basic components and parts of buildings
The components or parts of construction are essential materials for the construction of buildings. All buildings constructed with the same components, such as foundations, walls, floors, rooms and ceilings. The buildings must be decorated or renovated with paints, plasters, supplied electricity and accessories for doors and windows, fences and other external works to finish with precision. All these works are called Building Service.
A building has three basic requirements and components. Are –
1.       Foundation
2.       Plinth
3.       Superstructure
Below is a brief description of these basic parts of a building.
The foundation is the most critical work in building construction. A load of buildings depends on the base that is the resistance of the buildings. It is a type of substructure. Foundations can be divided into two categories, such as shallow and deep Foundations.
The shallow and deep words indicate the depth of the foundations on the ground. Shallow foundations used for small and light buildings for, for example, small or medium houses, small shopping centers, etc. and deep foundations used for large and heavy buildings, for example. tall buildings, large shopping centers, large hospitals and universities, etc. In general, shallow foundations can be made at a depth of only 3 feet (1 m) and deep foundations at a depth of 60 to 200 m (20 to 65 m).
There are several types of foundations in building construction.
1.       Foundation of the strip (shallow foundations)
2.       Foot foundation (shallow foundations)
3.       Pad Foundation (shallow foundations)
4.       Grillage Foundation (shallow foundations)
5.       Raft foundation (shallow foundations)
6.       Pile Foundation (deep foundations)
7.       Pier Foundation (deep foundations)
8.       Cassion Foundation (deep foundations).
All these foundations work to make columns, walls, rooms and living spaces. Depending on the different types of foundations, workers use various amounts of construction materials, for example, in the work of beams, workers make pile foundations.
Functions of the foundations:
1.       Load distribution
2.       Provide firm and level surface.
3.       Protection against ground movement.
4.       Reduction of the load intensity.
5.       Reduction of the differential settlement.
6.       Security against landslides and rollovers.
7.       Security against weakening.
The base is the part between the surface of the surrounding floor and the floor space that is immediately above the floor of a building. The plinth resists the entry of rainwater and insects inside the building. The general height of the plinth is 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 cm.
The superstructure built above the underground level. The location between the underground level and the ground level is known as the plinth. In this structure, the walls and rooms are built and transfer loads from the top to the substructure. In this part, a building has the following components:
Floor structures
It is an important element in the construction of buildings. It is located on the surface of the lower level of a room. The floors can decorate in several ways. The floors are here to move around eg. Walking from room to another room.
Roof structures
It is located on the surface of the upper level of a room. Depending on the weather, the ceilings can be of different categories, such as: blue roof, cold roof, roof of collar, fabric roof, national roof, fiber cement roof, flat roof, green roof, sloping roof, sloping roof monkey, warm roof, shell roof, metal roof, roof tiles, roof of skill, etc. Most of the time, flat roofs, domestic ceilings and fiber cement ceilings are used in building constructions.
Lintel, Parasol and Parapet
Lintel beams are provided near the openings to support the load that comes from the superstructure on the door or the windows. The lintels can be steel lintels, reinforced brick lintels, stone lintels, wooden lintels, etc.
The parasol also called as sunshade is one of the slab type, which is made in the upper part of the windows and doors. Protects doors and windows from rain and strong heat from sunlight. Depending on their position, the parasols can be Internal, External and Inter-panel. The internal solar protection protects against solar radiation and balances the availability of daylight; for example, venetian blinds and blinds, roller shutters, pleated blinds, opaque curtains, etc. The external curtains can be horizontal, vertical or egg boxes. External umbrellas are considered better to protect the building from weather or climate changes. The parasols maintain a comfortable indoor temperature and minimize solar radiation and cold weather, which considerably affects the energy performance of the building.
The parapet is a low wall built on the roof line that usually extends around the perimeter of a building. You can build a parapet wall around balconies or on the edge of terraces and stairs.
Door and windows
The doors provide a connecting link between the rooms, allowing free movement from one room to another. The opening windows provide on the walls. The doors and windows provide lighting, a soft sound from the outside places and ventilation. Without a doubt, both provide security and privacy. Different buildings have different sizes of doors; For example, the doors of residential areas are completely different from the doors of industrial buildings. There are different types of doors that engineers and architecture use in building construction.
Taking into account the material used
1.       Wooden door
2.       Metal door
3.       UPVC door
Taking into account the mechanism and use
1.       Sliding door
2.       Composite door
3.       Swing door
4.       Revolving door
5.       Folding door
There are also different types of windows such as:
1.       Fixed
2.       Pivoted
3.       Double Hung
4.       Sliding
5.       Casement
6.       Sash
7.       Louvered
8.       Metal
9.       Bay
10.   Corner window
11.   Dormer window
12.   Gable window
13.   Lantern
14.   Skylight
Walls and columns
The walls are building blocks of bricks or stones. They divide the space of the building into several support slabs in several beams and rooms. They safely transmit the loads that come from the beams and slabs to the foundations. They provide privacy and protection from heat, cold, rain, noise, dust winds. The walls can be brick masonry walls and stone masonry walls.
The columns are vertical members along which the beams and the slab / roof rest. The shape of the columns can be square, rectangular and circular.
Finishing construction work.
The final appearance of a building depends on such works. As:
1.       Plastering and signaling.
2.       Kitchen configuration
3.       Painting walls
4.       Furniture made of wood and wood doors.
5.       Greasing and painting of bars and metal works.
6.       Positioning and maintenance of elevators and works of stairs.
Building Construction services
There are other construction services after construction, which are also counted as building construction components. Such as water supply, electricity supply, drainage and sanitation, internal cabinets and cabinet services.

Post a Comment