What are the instruments use for Chaining Ranging out Survey Lines ?

 In surveying, chaining refers to the process of measuring linear distances using a chain or tape. The following instruments are commonly used for chaining and ranging out survey lines:

Surveyor's Chain - a 100-foot long, metal chain divided into 100 links, each link representing one foot.

Dumpy Level - an optical instrument used to establish and maintain level lines, which can be used in conjunction with a surveyor's chain for ranging out survey lines.

Ranging Rods - tall, thin poles with markings that are used to sight and align survey lines.

Cross Staff - a vertical rod with a sighting mechanism that is used to determine the height or elevation of a point in a survey.

Measuring Tapes - flexible tapes made from steel or fiberglass that are used to measure linear distances.

These instruments are used in combination to accurately establish survey lines, measure linear distances, and determine elevations and heights in a survey.

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