Project management deals with both “material” as well as “human factors” to increase the productivity. 3 Project management techniques helps PM to achieve the project deadline in budgeted time and cost.
Objectives of a Project
- It should be completed in small time with smallest capital investment
- It should available manpower and other resources
Phases of Project Management
- Planning involves defining goal of the project
- Listing of the job that have to be performed
- Determining gross rule for the material
- Equipment and man power nd preparing estimate of the cost and duration for various jobs.
- To bring about the satisfactory completion of the project
Scheduling is the allocation of the resources. Like time, material, space, equipment and human and technological effort which involves.
- Finalizing the planned functions.
- Assigning starting and completion dates to each activity to proceed in a logical sequence such in a systematic manner.
- Determination of the deviations from the basic plan and their efforts on the project
- Re-planning and rescheduling of activities to compensate for the deviation which called updating or rescheduling. It is important that planning and scheduling are need to complete before the actual project starts. Controlling is the operative duration execution of the project.
Very important things to know
- The method of planning and controlling developed and called as project planning and Scheduling called PPS.
- PPS was converted as Critical Path Method called CPM. It involves the deterministic approach and is used for the repetitive types of project.
“3 Project Management Techniques”
It was introduced by Henry Gantt around 1900 AD.
Features of the bar chart are
1. It is pictorial chart
2. It consist two coordinate axes the horizontal coordinate represents the elapsed time and vertical coordinate represent the job or activity which need to perform.
3. The beginning and end of each bar represent starting and finishing time of a particular activity .
4. The length of bar shown the time required for completion.
Limitation of Bar Chart
1. Less info of major activities are shown in the bar to which sub activities can not run separately. Hence effective control over the activities in big projects can not be complete.
2. A bar chart does not show progress of work. So it can not be used as a control device.
3. A bar chart is unable to depict interdependencies of various activity.
4. Bar chart are not used in the projects where there are un certainties determination of estimation of time required for completion of various activities such as in Research and Development projects.
5. Bar charts not distinguish between critical and non critical activities. Hence resource smoothing and resource levelling can not be done.
Bar chart diagram are useful for only smaller and simpler conventional projects. Especially construction and manufacturing projects. In which time estimate can be made with fare degree of certainty.
Mile Stone Chart
2. Controlling can be better achieved with the help of milestone charts. But still activity interrelationship and accountability of time uncertainty can not depicted which can be overcome in network techniques.
1. It is an outcome of the improvement in the milestone charts.
2. They are PERT, CPM
3. Yet all these have emerged from the two major network systems like PERT and CPM.