Friday, June 21, 2019

What is Surveying ?

The inspection, the first step to start a new civil engineering project, is a very important branch of civil engineering. To understand the techniques of surveying a student, you should carefully study the basic concepts of it. To begin to learn the topography one must begin with the definition of topography and its importance.

The survey is the technique of determining the relative position of different characteristics in, above or below the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and, finally, representing them on a sheet of paper known as a map or plane.

According to the American Congress of Topography and Cartography (ACSM),

The inspection also includes the technique of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. From the plans, sections and maps prepared by survey, the area and volume of a particular plot of land can be calculated. A map represents the horizontal projection of the area studied and not the actual area. But the vertical distance can be represented more correctly by drawing sections.

During a survey, surveyors use various tools to perform their work successfully and accurately, such as total stations, GPS receivers, prisms, 3D scanners, radio communicators, digital levels, level and dump measurement software, etc.

Types of Raft Foundations.

Types of Raft Foundation

Various types of Raft foundation used depending on the condition of soil and the load transfer mechanism on the foundation. 
Followings are the different types of raft foundation used in construction:
  1. Flate plate mat
  2. Plate thickened under the column
  3. Two-way beam and slab Raft
  4. Plate raft with pedestals
  5. Plied raft
  6. Rigid Frame Mat or Cellular Raft Foundation
Different types of mat foundation are briefly discussed below.

1. Flat Plate Mat

This is the simple form of raft foundation used when the columns and walls are uniformly spaced at small intervals and subjected load are relatively very small. Reinforcement is fixed in both directions and more reinforcement is required at the column locations and load bearing walls. The thickness of this types of raft foundation is generally restricted within 0.3 m for economic reason. A thicker slab would not be very economical.

What is the Raft Foundation? and its working principal.

Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab resting on a large area reinforced with steel in support with columns or walls and transfer loads from the structure to the soil. Mat foundation is spread over the entire area of the structure.
Raft foundation is generally used to support structures like residential or commercial buildings where soil condition is very poor also it generally used for storage tanks, silos, foundations for heavy industrial equipment.
Working Principle of Raft Foundation
To get a better idea of ​​when to use the base of the raft, it is important to understand how the base of the raft works. Let's quickly review its operating principle.

Difference Between Shallow And Deep foundations

There are various types of foundations but they are categorise under shallow and deep foundations. Following difference represent the difference of both types of foundations in relation with the definitions, depth, cost, feasibility, mechanism of load transfer, advantage and disadvantage.

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

What is sand? and its Composition

DefinitionSand is a mix of small grains of rock and granular materials which is mainly define by size. As it finer than gravel and coarser than silt and the ranging in size from 0.06 mm to 2 mm. Particles which are larger than 0.0078125 mm but usually smaller than 0.0625 mm are termed silt.
Sand is made by erosion or broken of rock and weathering of rocks, which process is carried out  by seas or rivers also freezing and thawing during the winter. Most of the time Sand on beaches can also be made by small broken-up pieces of coral, bone, and shell, which are broken up by predators. Sand can be also considered as textural class of soil. Always sandy soil contain more than 85% sand-sized particles by mass.

Composition of Sand

Sand is basically made of unconsolidated granular materials consisting of either rock materials and mineral particles or else oceanic materials these are mainly made of silicate minerals and silicate rock granular particles. Quartz is the most available mineral as it highly resistant properties to weather. Feldspar is the most available found group of minerals on the earth surface and forms about 65% of the terrestrial rocks. 

Introduction to soil and its formation

Definition of Soil : The terminology Soil is define as an unconsolidated material composed of solid particles which produce by disintegration of rock.

Soil formation and soil types :

1.On the basis Of geological origin soil may organic or inorganic types
2.Organic soils are extremely compressible und their use a foundation material is avoided.
3.Peat muck and humus are organic soils. Organic oil also known as cumulose soil.
4.Inorganic soils are formed by weathering Of rocks due to mechanical disintegration or chemical decomposition.
5.Physical disintegration or mechanical weathering occurs due to the effects temperature changes. wedging action of ice, spreading of roots of plants and abrasion.
6.Due to physical disintegration. there is no change in chemical composition
7.Coarse grained soils, such IS gravel and sand are formed by the process of physical disintegration.
8.Chemical decomposition or chemical weathering of rocks occurs due to hydration, carbonation, Oxidation, solution and hydrolysis.
9.Due to chemical decomposition, original materials are transformed into new minerals by chemical reactions
10.Chemical decomposition of rocks results in formation of clay minerals
11.Soils are obtained geologic cycle. which goes On continuously in nature
12.the geological cycle consists of corrosion. Transportation, deposition and upheaval of soil.

Monday, June 17, 2019

Types of RCC Foundation & Footing

Foundation is one among the foremost vital elements of the structure. Foundation is outlined as that a part of the structure that transfers the load from the structure moreover as its own weight over an outsizes space of soil in such how that the load doesn't exceed the final word bearing capability of the soil and therefore the settlement of the whole structure remains inside a tolerable limit. Foundation is that the a part of a structure on that the building stands. The physical object on that the muse rests is termed the muse bed.

Why a Foundation is Provided ?

Foundation ought to fulfil the subsequent objectives:

1.Distribute the burden of the structure over an outsized space of soil.
2.Avoid unequal settlement.
3.Prevent the lateral movement of the structure.
4.Increase structural stability.

Why There square measure differing types of Foundation ?

As we all know that there square measure differing types of soil and bearing capability of the soil is completely different for every individual variety of soil. therefore reckoning on the profile, size and cargo of the structure, engineers selected differing types of foundation.