The inspection, the first step to start a new civil engineering project, is a very important branch of civil engineering. To understand the techniques of surveying a student, you should carefully study the basic concepts of it. To begin to learn the topography one must begin with the definition of topography and its importance.
The survey is the technique of determining the relative position of different characteristics in, above or below the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and, finally, representing them on a sheet of paper known as a map or plane.
According to the American Congress of Topography and Cartography (ACSM),
The inspection also includes the technique of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. From the plans, sections and maps prepared by survey, the area and volume of a particular plot of land can be calculated. A map represents the horizontal projection of the area studied and not the actual area. But the vertical distance can be represented more correctly by drawing sections.
During a survey, surveyors use various tools to perform their work successfully and accurately, such as total stations, GPS receivers, prisms, 3D scanners, radio communicators, digital levels, level and dump measurement software, etc.