## Wednesday, 31 January 2018

### Check sheet

A check sheet can be introduced as the most basic tool for quality.

A check sheet is basically used for gathering and organizing data.

When this is done with the help of software packages such as Microsoft Excel, you can derive further analysis graphs and automate through macros available.

Therefore, it is always a good idea to use a software check sheet for information gathering and organizing needs.

One can always use a paper-based check sheet when the information gathered is only used for backup or storing purposes other than further processing.

### Cause and effect diagram of Ishikawa

Cause and effect diagrams (Ishikawa Diagram) are used for understanding organizational or business problem causes or fish bone diagram.

Organizations face problems everyday and it is required to understand the causes of these problems in order to solve them effectively. Cause and effect diagrams exercise is usually a teamwork.

A brainstorming session is required in order to come up with an effective cause and effect diagram.

All the main components of a problem area are listed and possible causes from each area is listed.

Then, most likely causes of the problems are identified to carry out further analysis.

### Histogram

Histogram is used for illustrating the frequency and the extent in the context of two variables.

Histogram is a chart with columns. This represents the distribution by mean. If the histogram is normal, the graph takes the shape of a bell curve.

If it is not normal, it may take different shapes based on the condition of the distribution. Histogram can be used to measure something against another thing. Always, it should be two variables.

### Flow charts

This is one of the basic quality tool that can be used for analyzing a sequence of events.

The tool maps out a sequence of events that take place sequentially or in parallel. The flow chart can be used to understand a complex process in order to find the relationships and dependencies between events.

You can also get a brief idea about the critical path of the process and the events involved in the critical path.

Flow charts can be used for any field to illustrate complex processes in a simple way. There are specific software tools developed for drawing flow charts, such as MS Visio.

### What is tender?

Tendcr is a written offer submitted by the contractors in pursurance of the notification given, to execute certain work or supply of some specified articles or transport of materials at certain rates with the terms and conditions laid down in the tender documents.

The form in which it is to be submitted is supplied by the department to eligible contractors on usual payment of cost. The tender duly filled in is placed in the Tender Box with locking arrangements kept in the room of the officer inviting tender on or before the specified hours and date notified through the tender notice.

It is given in P.W.D Form 6.