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Sunday, 17 February 2019

What are the Properties of Stones ?

Properties of Stones the subsequent properties of the stones ought to be looked into before choosing them for engineering works:
(i) Structure: The structure of the stone is also stratified(layered) or unstratified. Structured stones ought to be simply dressed and appropriate for super structure. Unstratified stones are hard and difficult to dress. They are preferred for the foundation works.
(ii) Texture: Fine grained stones with undiversified distribution look engaging and thus they're used for carving. Such stones are usually strong and durable.
(iii) Density: Denser stones are stronger. Light weight stones are weak. Hence stones with relative density but a pair of.4 are thought of unsuitable for buildings.
(iv) Appearance: A stone with uniform and engaging colour is sturdy, if grains ar compact. Marble and granite get superb look, once polished. Hence they're used for face works in buildings.
(v) Strength: Strength is a vital property to be looked into before choosing stone as building block. Indian customary code recommends, a minimum crushing strength of three.5 N/mm2 for any building block
(vi) Hardness: it's a vital property to be thought-about once stone is employed for flooring and pavement. constant of hardness is to be found by conducting take a look at on customary specimen in Dory’s testing machine. For road works constant of hardness ought to be a minimum of seventeen. For building works stones with constant of hardness but fourteen shouldn't be used.
(vii) share wear: it's measured by attrition take a look at. it's a vital property to be thought-about in choosing mixture for road works and railway ballast. a decent stone shouldn't show wear of over two.
(viii) consistence and Absorption: All stones have pores and therefore absorb water. The reaction of water with material of stone cause disintegration. Absorption take a look at is such as share of water absorbed by the stone once it's immersed underneath water for twenty-four hours. For a decent stone it ought to be as little as attainable and in no case over five.
(ix) Weathering: Rain and wind cause loss of excellent look of stones. therefore stones with atmospheric condition resistance ought to be used for face works.
(x) Toughness: The resistance to impact is termed toughness. it's determined by impact take a look at. Stones with toughness index over nineteen area unit most popular for road works. Toughness index thirteen to nineteen area unit thought-about as medium robust and stones with toughness index but thirteen area unit poor stones.
(xi) Resistance to Fire: Sand stones resist fireplace higher. argillaceous materials, tho' poor in strength, area unit smart in resisting fireplace. (xii) Ease in Dressing: value of dressing contributes to value of stone masonry to a good extent. Dressing is straightforward in stones with lesser strength. therefore AN engineer ought to cross-check enough strength instead of high strength whereas choosing stones for building works.
(xiii) Seasoning: The stones obtained from quarry contain wet within the pores. The strength of the stone improves if this wet is removed before victimization the stone. the method of removing wet from pores is termed seasoning. the most effective manner of seasoning is to permit it to the action of nature for six to twelve months. this is often a great deal needed within the case of dirt stones.

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