Saturday, 25 February 2017

Classification of surveying

• Control surveying : To establish horizontal and vertical positions of control points.
• Land surveying : To determine the boundaries and areas of parcels of land, also known as
property survey, boundary survey or cadastral survey.
• Topographic survey : To prepare a plan/ map of a region which includes natural as well as
and man-made features including elevation.
• Engineering survey : To collect requisite data for planning, design and execution of
engineering projects. Three broad steps are
1) Reconnaissance survey : To explore site conditions and availability of infrastructures.
2) Preliminary survey : To collect adequate data to prepare plan / map of area to be used for
planning and design.
3) Location survey : To set out work on the ground for actual construction / execution of the
project.
• Route survey : To plan, design, and laying out of route such as highways, railways, canals,
pipelines, and other linear projects.
• Construction surveys : Surveys which are required for establishment of points, lines,
grades, and for staking out engineering works (after the plans have been prepared and the
structural design has been done).
• Astronomic surveys : To determine the latitude, longitude (of the observation station) and
azimuth (of a line through observation station) from astronomical observation.
• Mine surveys : To carry out surveying specific for opencast and underground mining purposes

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