Thursday, 28 July 2016

What is Bill of quantity ?

Bill of quantity is the one document that contains all the quantity in cum which come from the building drawings.

Also the rate of one cum is calculate from the RATE ANALYSIS.

On my website I put the rate analysis files in excel format with the video.

Bill of quantity is finally used to estimate the total cost with what quantity require for the particular project.

It's really very important to list all the items in the BOQ.

The rate estimate from the rate analysis is put in the BOQ and that multiply with the total quality of particular item of building.

I put some BOQ sample photos with there format on my website u can check that in download tab over top of the website.

It is really important to know about the BOQ and RATE ANALYSIS then u can be successful in the analysis of rates of building.

Wednesday, 27 July 2016

Mixing of concrete

To produce uniform and good concrete, it is necessary to mix cement, sand and coarse aggregate, first in dry condition and then in wet condition after adding water.

The following methods are practiced:
(a) Hand Mixing
(b) Machine Mixing.

Compaction of Concrete

In the process of placing concrete, air is entrapped.

The entrapped air reduces the strength of concrete up to 30%. Hence it is necessary to remove this entrapped air.

This is achieved by compacting the
concrete after placing it in its final position.

Compaction can be carried out either
by hand or with the help of vibrators.


The properties of green concrete include:
1. Workability
2. Segregation
3. Bleeding
4. Harshness.
The properties of hardened concrete are:
1. Strength
2. Resistance to wear
3. Dimensional changes
4. Durability
5. Impermeability.


(i) Colour: Colour should be uniform and bright.

(ii) Shape: Bricks should have plane faces. They should have sharp and true right angled corners.

(iii) Size: Bricks should be of standard sizes as prescribed by codes.

(iv) Texture: They should possess fine, dense and uniform texture. They should not possess fissures, cavities, loose grit and unburnt lime.

(v) Soundness: When struck with hammer or with another brick, it should produce
metallic sound.

(vi) Hardness: Finger scratching should not produce any impression on the brick.

(vii) Strength: Crushing strength of brick should not be less than 3.5 N/mm2. A field test for strength is that when dropped from a height of 0.9 m to 1.0 mm on a hard ground, the brick should not break into pieces.

(viii) Water Absorption: After immercing the brick in water for 24 hours, water
absorption should not be more than 20 per cent by weight. For class-I works this limit is 15 per cent.

(ix) Efflorescence: Bricks should not show white patches when soaked in water for
24 hours and then allowed to dry in shade. White patches are due to the presence of sulphate of calcium, magnesium and potassium. They keep the masonry permanently in damp and wet conditions.

(x) Thermal Conductivity: Bricks should have low thermal conductivity, so that
buildings built with them are cool in summer and warm in winter.

(xi) Sound Insulation: Heavier bricks are poor insulators of sound while light weight and hollow bricks provide good sound insulation.

(xii) Fire Resistance: Fire resistance of bricks is usually good. In fact bricks are used to encase steel columns to protect them from fire.


Brick is obtained by moulding good clay into a block, which is dried and then burnt.

This is the oldest building block to replace stone. Manufacture of brick started withhand moulding, sun drying and burning in clamps. A considerable amount oftechnological development has taken place with better knowledge about to propertiesof raw materials, better machinaries and improved techniques of moulding drying and

The size of the bricks are of 90 mm × 90 mm × 90 mm and 190 mm × 90 mm
× 40 mm. With mortar joints, the size of these bricks are taken as 200 mm × 100 mm× 100 mm and 200 mm × 100 mm× 50 mm. However the old size of 8 commonlyused in India.


1. Strength of brick masonry is less than that of stone masonry.
2. Durability of brick masonry is less.
3. Brick masonry needs plastering and plastered surface needs colour washing.
Stone masonry don’t need them and hence maintenance cost is more in brick
4. Brick masonry absorbs water and there are possibility of dampness. There is no
such problem in stone masonry.
5. More architectural effects can be given in stone masonry compared to that in
brick masonry.
6. Stone masonry gives massive appearance and hence monumental buildings are built in stone masonry.


1. Since shape and size of bricks are uniform, it do not need skilled labour for the
2. Bricks are light in weight and hence handling them is easy.
3. Bricks are easily available around cities and their transportation cost is less
because their weight is less. Stones are to be brought from quarries which are
located only at few places.
4. It is possible to use all types of mortar in brick masonry. For unimportant
buildings even mud mortar can be used.
5. Thinner walls can be constructed with bricks but it is not so with stones.

Monday, 18 July 2016

Long wall and Short wall method notes by Parag K Pal.

Long wall and Short wall method is a estimation and coasting method. This method is mostly use for load bearing structure. It really very simple method just download the notes below and watch the following video lecture so you can simply learn this method.


Watch the lecture on the long wall and short wall method.

Civil Engineering Projects

1)  Prefabricated building with EPS wall panels by Parag K Pal.

Saturday, 16 July 2016

Civil Engineering Project Topic

Earthquake Resistant Design And Construction

Light Weight Concrete

Heavy Density Concretes

Self Compacting Concrete

Instant Concrete Road Repair Solution

Advanced Earthquake Resistant Techniques

smart materials

Causes Prevention And Repair of Cracks In Building

Advanced Pavement Design

sewage treatment plant

Air pollution & its control

stability of high rise buildings

watershed management

Bandra-Worli Sea Link

Concrete Cube Testing

Cellular Lightweight Concrete

Bridge Bearings & Stability

Development Of Remote Monitoring System

the rain roof water-harvesting system

pile foundation

seismic isolation devices

formwork types & design

green buildings

zero energy buildings

construction challenges for bridges

Construction Equipments

Offshore structures.

Geo Synthetic

Sand witched Panel

Replacement Of Sand By Quarry Dust In Concrete

Load Bearing Capacity Of Un-reinforced Brick Masonry

Brick Masonry Strength

Cement Composite With No-Fines Concrete

Study Of Road Humps

Low Cost Roofing Tiles

Partial Replacement Of Cement By Red Mud In Mortar

The Strength Behaviour Of Fly Ash Bricks

Studies On Bamboo Reinforced

Low Cost Bricks Making

Crushed Stone Dust Cement Blocks

Geotextiles Reinforced Soil For Pavements

Flyash Mosaic Flooring Tiles

Domestic Water Treatment Plant

Electrical Resistivity Survey For Ground Water Exploration

Flexible And Rigid Pavement

Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Utilization Of Silica Fume In Concrete

Fly Ash Concrete

silica fume concrete

glass fiber reinforced concrete

flexible pavement

fly-ash concrete pavement

eco- friendly housing